The real (non-chaotic) perception of time by the human brain is the consciousness of the succession of physical actions (oriented to success or oriented to reaching understanding) and cognitive reflections on a sequence of one’s actions that have already taken place, upon the consequences of those actions and feelings of pain or pleasure in response. Already in 1871 Darwin wrote in his “The descent of man” that moral beings must be capable of reflecting over and evaluating their actions. Ideally, all human actions should be evaluated by reflecting upon specific principles, using this reflective process to rationally deduce a specific judgment and to improve the person’s capacity for subsequent performances. But in reality the filters that our brain applies are rather chaotic and highly influenced by multiple external factors. Therefore, when our brain creates anything, it also creates chaotically other things which are not what we intended. Only time will tell if our reflections are valid or not as it will become clear what has and has not worked. There is, of course, no way of asking non-human beings to reflect of their actions, but humans can be asked.CORRECTION: It seems that corvids, carrion crows (Corvus corone corone) and ravens (Corvus corax) could reflect as well.Photo Joachim S. Müller's photostream http://www.flickr.com/photos/joachim_s_mueller/ And now it is clear that the medial frontal cortex of the human brain is crucially involved in self-generated action and post-actional self-reflection but it remains to be shown why it is that self-reflection depends on mechanisms on the medial frontal surface and which other parts of the brain are involved in post-actional self-reflection. This CEREBRART work illustrates these ideas.